There is hardly any media coverage and yet there terrible attrocities and death. Sometimes conflicts are started over resources or ideologies, and sometimes they seem to be started for no reason at all. At the same time, however, ethiopia has witnessed a surge in violent conflicts for. In the midst of poverty, african ruling classes or the elite group who happen to hold power at a particular time, have enriched themselves and become the targets of envy or of rivalry by other elite groups. The eritreanethiopian war took place from may 1998 to june 2000 forming one of. The root causes of conflicts in the horn of africa science. Conflicts and causes of conflicts in africa project topics. The causes of ethnic conflict in multi ethnic societies1 hossien mohammadzadeh assistant professor of sociology, department of social science, payame noor university, tehran, iran email address. Federalism as an ideology, like socialism, communism and liberalism, is a pragmatic term which refers to the sharing of power. Ethnic conflict remains the biggest cause of deaths especially in the continent of africa. Persistent interethnic conflicts in southern ethiopia have created a crisis in security of customary. Furthermore, ethnic based violence occurred throughout many of the universities across ethiopia. The principal objective of this study is to unearth the causes of the conflict between these two ethnic groups.
Yohannes gebre michael, kassaye hadgu and zerihun ambaye 2005. The impact of ethnic conflict on economic development. Results causes of conflict among students at bahir dar university as shown in table 2, theft 95. Ethnic conflict in ethiopia pdf horn of africa ethiopia. The methodology employed relied on qualitative approach using both primary and secondary sources. The rise in violent ethnic conflict in ethiopia in recent years can largely be linked to the sharp increase in. Pdf unlike many african populations, the overwhelming majority of the somalis are part of a single, homogeneous ethnic group. The root of conflict between ethiopia and eritrea is the dispute over the border line. While the source of the conflict may be political, social, economic or religious, the individuals in conflict must expressly fight for their ethnic groups position within society. Armed conflict and its international dimensions, 19462004 pdf.
An analysis of the afarsomali conflict in ethiopia and djibouti. Literature concerning ethnic conflict generally consists of similar methods and forms of analysis, focusing on ethnic conflict in broad terms and employing large nsize studies. Since then, numerous theorists and scholars have attempted to explain the different causes of ethnic conflict based on their theoretical. Igbohausa feud that began after the military coup and countercoup of 1966, culminating in the civil war in 1967, efikibibio conflict, tivjukun debacle, fulanibirom clashes, and itsekiriurhoboijaw conflict in the niger delta. Numerous theories and much research attempts to explain the causes of ethnic conflict. Policydriven interethnic conflicts in southern ethiopia jstor. There is growing concern that ethiopia s prime minister has failed to address rising ethnic tensions and violence. But incidence of ethnic violence was different in varying country. Jan 10, 2018 the last two weeks have also brought forth a new pattern of ethnic tension in the public sphere. The causes of insecurity of customary tenure in the pastoral areas can be investigated at regional. Ethiopias ethnic violence history with oromos, amharas. Interpersonal conflicts and styles of managing conflicts. The guji and their adjoining groups such as gedeo, borana, arsi, sidama, etc are some of the people who have been affected by this policy.
Local conflicts and ethnic relations among konso and derashe. There is growing concern that ethiopias prime minister has failed to address rising ethnic tensions and violence. Conflict is a process in which one party suggests that its interests are being opposed by another party. Drivers of ethnic conflict in contemporary ethiopia aws. The imperial period 1974 ethiopia is the only african state never colonised by a foreign power. As means of conflict resolution and exercising of democracy, the government architected the ethnic federalism system in which the country was divided into 9 administrative constituents and 2 self. An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups. Conflict situations are inevitable in ones personal life, in organizations or even between nations. Nov 27, 2017 alem mamo, for addis standard addis abeba, november 272017 conceivably, if there is a single most important question that requires in depth interrogation in the present political atmosphere of ethiopia it is this one. It has been experienced with a number of armed conflicts, ethnolinguistic disputes, religious radicalism where in it catches the attention of most developed nations including us for their strategic interest over the region. Drivers of ethnic conflict in contemporary ethiopia.
Fundamental political reforms are underway in ethiopia, but as the new prime minister, abiy ahmed and his government work to. It traces its origin to the kingdoms that emerged in the northern highlands in the fourth century. Pdf causes of ethnic tensions and conflicts on campus. Introduction and background gambella national regional state is. Mar 15, 2019 displacement and ethnic conflict in new ethiopia by graham peebles. Understanding the causes of ethnicbased violence in ethiopia should start with.
Thousands flee ethnic conflict in western ethiopia. Uncertainty, each ethnic conflict has its own unique characteristics and, in different contexts, some of these elements will be more prominent than the others, but all of them are the common denominators necessary for ethnic conflict to occur. This list includes both nationwide and international types of war, including but not limited to the following. Ethnic conflict in ethiopia and eritrea the spatial extent of the conflict is the ethiopian and eritrean border. Ethnic federalism and its discontents crisis group africa report n153, 4 september 2009 page 2 ii. Ethnic conflict is an armed warfare between ethnic groups. The real causes of the conflicts were inequitable distributions of economic and political power or the demand for access to political and economic benefits. In february and march, hundreds were reported to have been killed in the southern oromia. Breaking the cycle of conflict in gambella region assessment mission. This conflict left more than one million people displaced in dire conditions, struggling to find space in.
Pdf causes of ethnic tensions and conflicts on campus among. The theoretical ground of the study was the instrumentalist paradigm which claims that ethnic conflict is a clash between rational agents over scarce resources. The causes of ethnic conflict in multiethnic societies. Explaining dynamics of ethnicity and inter ethnic conflicts in post. The root causes of conflicts in the horn of africa semantic. Dec 20, 2000 this part of the web site looks at the conflict betweem ethiopia and eritrea. In developing country incidence were low and in the developing sever. The precise causes for the clashes are still relatively unclear, given the magnitude of the violence, but underlying drivers include ethnic tensions and competition over scarce resources. Importantly, ethnic conflict has gained much attention since the end of the cold war. Ethnic tension and conflict, causes, university students, ethiopia. The reason for selecting the amhara challenge as the main scenario stems partly from the specific influence that the amhara have had in ethiopia in the past, their substantial population, and some evidence of ongoing attempts at mobilization. Ethnic conflict, political crisis and the future of ethiopia.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the main causes of the post 1991 ethnic conflicts in ethiopia based on secondary data. Ethnic conflict has gained much attention since the end of cold war and it becomes a worldwide matter. Section three deals with ethnic conflict in ethiopia and section four is about. Mar 02, 2015 regional dynamics of inter ethnic conflicts in the horn of africa. As a rule, people see only the observable aspect of conflict angry words, actions of opposition, etc. This is a list of conflicts in ethiopia arranged chronologically from medieval to modern times. Dec 07, 2017 as it is quite evident today in ethiopia, the blending of two contradictory ideologies coupled with the modalities of the federal structures such as ethnic federalism, asymmetric and incongruent forms of federalism, dominantparty governance provide valid reasons for the prevailing ethnic conflict in ethiopia. Developing country management ethnic conflict by participation and justice policy that the equality is the best way for resolve this problem. Pre1991 ethiopia understanding the causes of ethnic based violence in ethiopia should start with. Istic when applied to the multiethnic conditions of ethiopia. Thus, ethnic conflicts prevailing in ethiopia may be caused by such technicality. Accordingly, this paper attempted to identify and critically analyze the due. Ethnic conflict in ethiopia and eritrea by alanis rosado on prezi. Datasets on intra state conflicts uppsala conflict data program correlates of war project national, ethnic and communal conflicts penn university the failed state index global peace index global conflict trends systemic peace minorities at risk journal of peace research.
Introduction and background gambella national regional state is situated in the southwestern part of ethiopia. Image caption ethiopias ethnicbased borders have been fuelling conflict between the two communities. Causes, dynamics, and consequences of internal displacement in ethiopia. Interethnic conflict nationalities and peoples regi. The horn of africa hoa has been mentioned as one of the most disputed regions of the globe. Conflict between ethiopia and eritrea global issues. This study is an investigation of the causes of local conflict between the konso and derashe people of southern ethiopia. The case of the kuraz and hamer subdistricts of south omo zone. This final criterion differentiates ethnic conflict from other forms of struggle. Border war and ethnic clashes leave over 150,000 internally displaced. Pdf causes, dynamics, and consequences of internal.
The twentieth century ethiopian elites, participating in the allethiopia socialist movement meison and the ethiopian peoples revolutionary party eprp, viewed the problems in ethiopia as a result of class conflicts and not as an outcome of struggles between ethnic groups aalen 2002. Sep 18, 2017 image caption ethiopia s ethnic based borders have been fuelling conflict between the two communities. Accordingly, the research has established that the post 1991 ethnic conflicts in ethiopia consisted of multifaceted. Thousands flee ethnic conflict in western ethiopia bbc. A brief historical overview of ethnic conflict in ethiopia as mentioned above, the historical root causes of violent ethnic conflicts in ethiopia have its complex and.733 574 484 1285 139 328 1546 929 1456 738 1346 492 1581 808 613 464 922 1103 366 704 498 665 203 1219 880 1002 668 1392 1106 111 118 434 1103 385 1269 371 790 287 1035 215 1496 115 713 1021 356